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A plot of turbidity against coagulant dose gives an indication of the optimum dosage (i.e. (Yukselen and Gregory 2004 ). The raw tannery effluent was bluish-black in colour, mildly basic in nature, with high COD 4000mg/l and turbidity in the range 700NTU, was diluted and dosed with organic coagulants, AloeVera, MoringaOleifera and Cactus (O.ficus-indica).. The optimum coagulant dosage in a coagulation process is pH dependent and should be established based on an on-site jar or pilot testing for the site-specific conditions of a given application. Will the natural alkalinity of water be sufficient to satisfy reaction with alum? A ‘Stable colloidal particle’ is a colloidal particle that remains as a separate entity in the water, i.e. The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. The jar test may be briefly described as follows: A series of samples of water are placed on a special multiple stirrer and the samples, typically 800 ml in 1-litre beakers (or jars), are dosed with a range of coagulant, e.g. A laboratory experiment called the jar test is generally used for the periodic determination of the optimal dose. In model 2, The results of the optimum coagulant dose obtained, by using model 2, are shown in Figs. In adsorption/charge neutralization, it is found that excessive dosage results in charge reversal and a negative effect on process performance. Keywords: Turbidity, Optimum dose, Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACL), pH. The SCD measures the net surface charge of the particles and shows a streaming current value of 0 when the charges are neutralized (cationic coagulants neutralize the anionic colloids). Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation. Flocculation aids water treatment 16 4/7/2014 . Feed water pH should be adjusted to the appropriate range prior to coagulant addition. A post-treatment alkali dose of 4.7 mg/L was required in this instance (total dose 8.1 mg/L). determine the optimal pH and dosage, the activity of natural coagulant, followed by the real effluent from tannery waste. 2 and 3, with the corresponding amounts of R 2 and MSE shown in Table 4. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Polymers also reinforce flocs . The criteria thus obtained from a bench jar test are the quality of resultant floc and the clarity of the supernatant liquid after settling. BTJCM (Civil/Environmental) (OP) 3 Oct 18 08:05. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. Charge neutralisation in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of turbid water. The dosage range of a coagulant will vary depending on site water chemistry. In coagulation, coagulant dosage for a given source water should be determined based on jar test and/or pilot testing. The enhanced coagulation process is used to remove natural organic matter by adjusting the pH and coagulant dose to remove the greatest amount of suspended matter during the treatment process. Addition of caustic soda at 3.4 mg/L was necessary to achieve a coagulation pH of 6.9. At pH values above 7, the removal performance of aluminum-based coagulants drops markedly. Determination of Optimum pHfor Optimum Coagulant Dose Rapid mix 1-3 min (at 80 rpm) Slow mix 30 min (at 10-20 rpm) Settle for 20 min Turbidity of supernatant Optimum coagulant dosage determined in part A as-is pH adjust pH5 adjust pH6 adjust pH8 W/ H2SO4 NaOH 29. The optimal pH ranges for coagulation with aluminum and ferric salts are 5 to 7 and 5 to 8, respectively. Optimum coagulant dose: 12.5 mg/L The coagulant dose with the lowest residual turbidity will be the optimum coagulant dose . Introduction Turbidity is one of the important physical parameters of water that representing the amount of suspended solids, (Kawamura, 2000; Daneshvar, 2009). This allows the operator, or an automated control device, to make the necessary coagulant feed adjustments in order to continuously maintain the optimum dosage. Use the concentration of coagulant chosen in steps 10 and 11 and alter the dosage of lime or coagulant aid. Ferric sulphate is available as a commercial water treatment coagulant in the form of an anhydrous material that may be transported and stored in wooden barrels. the minimum amount required to give acceptable clarification). Usually in electrical double-layer suppression, there is little or no dependence on coagulant dosage after the minimum/optimum dosage. Using the given data, calculate the optimal pH, coagulant dose, and the theoretical amount of alkalinity that would be consumed at the optimal dose. At this value (0), the coagulant dose can be said to be optimum. Characteristics of the treated water for each coagulant option determined from WaterQual are given in Table 3. Essentially, insufficient dosage or overdosing would result in poor performance in flocculation. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. The turbidity value is proportional to the amount of colloid and suspended solids in water that cannot be deposited in usual ways. As evidenced with Fig. Different coagulants also have an optimum pH range over which they are effective and pH buffering may be required depending on the coagulant and water chemistry. an optimal dosage of coagulant, which generally is calculated by means of the “Jar Test,” working under a uniform condition of turbidity. The goal of the lab was to determine the optimum coagulation dosage for alum and possibly soda ash for this water source. Knowledge of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage calculations. The hydrolysis products possess a positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of the metal hydroxide. 15 COAGULANT AIDS Other substances than coagulants used: - Clay minerals - Silicates -Polymers Polymers are often either anionic or cationic to aid coagulation. Enhanced coagulation occurs at a lower pH. 1. Look it up now! Essentially, insufficient dosage or overdosing would result in the poor performance in flocculation. 3 , turbidity removal is maximum at an optimized dose of alum 0.25 g/l and when the dose is increased turbidity tends to reappear due to charge reversal. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. At a smaller dosage of the coagulant 0.5 mg Al/mg dye the efficiency of coagulation dropped in the whole examined pH range by 20% on average, in comparison with the optimal dosage 1.0 mg Al/mg dye. Coagulation is an primary process of any kind of water treatment plant, that process must be performed using with cost effective and commonly used coagulants. Therefore, it is significant to determine the optimum dosage to minimize the dosing cost and sludge … Post-filtration pH adjustment may be necessary to optimize corrosion control and comply with other … The students conducted various jar tests with UV254 to determine which chemical combination would produce the best finished water quality results. optimal coagulant dose for a particular raw water. The amount of waste water that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters. At this dosage the lowest measured concentration of the residual dye was Ck = 16 mg/dm 3 at pH 4.5. Common criteria include supernatant turbidity after settling, and filtrationthrough filter papers. Coagulation dosage is one of the most important factors that have been considered to determine the optimum condition for the performance of coagulants in coagulation and flocculation. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the re-ducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD When the issue of the coagulant dosage is solved, the optimum pH range for coagulation is also a undergoing topic. A higher than the optimum dose of coagulant thus results in less turbidity removal. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. Coagulation is an essential part of drinking water treatment process. At higher dosa-ges of the coagulant … The evaluation of optimum coagulant type, dosage and pH using the jar test procedure may be carried out on the basis of a wide variety of criteria; the applicability of each dependent on the particular circumstances and the processes used after coagulation. Generally the floc formed by the reaction of copperas and lime is feathery and fragile, but has a high specific gravity. However the turbidity values change temporarily on the water, affecting the effectiveness of this process, due to each turbidity value may need a different coagulant dose [2]. … Optimum dose definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Coagulation is a chemical process in which a chemical compound, a “coagulant”, is added to the water, in order to destabilize the suspended particles and promote creation of flocs. The least turbid sample should correspond to the optimal coagulant dosage chosen in step 10. Hi I have a problem with coagulant-flocculant-sorbent dosing. The addition of acid is used to achieve the proper pH unlike sweep treatment were the operator overdoses the coagulant to achieve the correct pH range. If lime or a coagulant aid is fed at your plant in addition to the primary coagulant, you should repeat the jar test to determine the optimum dosage of lime or coagulant aid. Through RSM optimization, the optimum dose for alum was 7 mg/l and for polymer was 0.004 mg/l. The dose of lime required is approximately 0.27 mg/L to react with 1.0 mg/L of copperas. The optimal dosage of the coagulant was 1.0 mg Al/mg dye. General and 7 most commonly used coagulants in water treatment plant is under: 1.Alum (aluminum sulfate), Al 2 (SO 4) 3. An automated device for determining the coagulant dose is the Streaming Current Detector (SCD). 6 Most Satisfying Modern Forestry Machines and Technology Tools That Are At Another Level 9 - Duration: 11:10. How to dose coagulant? in a dispersed state. The optimum coagulant dose was found to be lower than that for aluminium sulphate. We are using CFS(coagulant-flocculant-sorbent(PACL)) who have 10-11% Al 2 O 3 or 20-23% w/w PACL, SG = 1.18 50% basicity and 10,5% w/w Cl. It is used to agglomerate suspended solids together into larger bodies. the coagulant dose really depends on the required treatment extent and the purpose of treatment. Optimum operation conditions were: an organic load of 25% of the total dose, total coagulants dose of 10 ppm, pH of 6 with an estimation of high turbidity value of 100 NTU. Ferric sulphate. The model has also achieved reasonable accuracy in predicting the amount of the residual aluminum of the treated water with an R 2 of 0.93 and a MSE of 0.37 mg L −1.. 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